Workers in railroad occupations ensure that passenger and freight trains run on time and travel safely. Some workers drive trains, some coordinate the activities of the trains, and others operate signals and switches in the rail yard.
Railroad workers typically do the following:
Check the mechanical condition of locomotives and make adjustments when necessary
Document issues with a train that require further inspection
Operate locomotive engines within or between stations
Freight trains move billions of tons of goods around the country to ports where they are shipped around the world. Passenger trains transport millions of passengers and commuters to destinations around the country. These railroad workers are essential to keeping freight and passenger trains running properly.
All workers in railroad occupations work together closely. Locomotive engineers travel with conductors and sometimes brake operators. Locomotive engineers and conductors are in constant contact and keep each other informed of any changes in the condition of the train.
Signal and switch operators communicate with both locomotive and rail yard engineers to make sure that trains end up at the correct destination. All occupations are in contact with dispatchers who give them directions on where to go and what to do.
Locomotive engineers drive freight or passenger trains between stations. They drive long-distance trains and commuter trains, but not subway trains. Most locomotive engineers drive diesel-electric engines, although some drive locomotives powered by battery or electricity.
Engineers must be aware of the goods their train is carrying because different types of freight require different types of driving, based on the conditions of the rails. For example, a train carrying hazardous material through a snowstorm is driven differently than a train carrying coal through a mountain region.
Locomotive engineers typically do the following:
Monitor speed, air pressure, battery use, and other instruments to ensure that the locomotive runs smoothly
Use a variety of controls, such as throttles and airbrakes, to operate the train
Communicate with dispatchers over radios to get information about delays or changes in the schedule
Conductors travel on both freight and passenger trains. They coordinate activities of the train crew. On passenger trains, they ensure safety and comfort and make announcements to keep passengers informed. On freight trains they are responsible for overseeing the loading and unloading of cargo.
Conductors typically do the following:
Check passengers' tickets
Take payments from passengers who did not buy tickets in advance
Announce stations and give other announcements as needed
Help passengers to safety when needed
Deal with unruly passengers when needed
Oversee loading and unloading of cargo
Yardmasters do work similar to that of conductors, except that they do not travel on trains. They oversee and coordinate the activities of workers in the rail yard. They tell yard engineers where to move cars to fit the planned configuration or to load freight. Yardmasters ensure that trains are carrying the correct material before leaving the yard. Not all rail yards use yardmasters. In rail yards that do not have yardmasters, a conductor performs the duties of a yardmaster.
Yardmasters typically do the following:
Review schedules, switching orders, and shipping records of freight trains
Arrange for defective cars to be removed from a train for repairs
Switch train traffic to a certain section of the line to allow other inbound and outbound trains to get around
Break up or put together train cars according to a schedule
Rail yard engineers operate train engines within the rail yard. They move locomotives between tracks to keep the trains organized and on schedule. Some operate small locomotives called dinkeys. Sometimes, rail yard engineers are called hostlers and drive locomotives to and from maintenance shops or prepare them for the locomotive engineer. Some use remote locomotive technology to move freight cars within the rail yards.
Railroad brake, signal, or switch operatorscontrol equipment that keeps the trains running safely.
Brake operators help couple and uncouple train cars. Some travel with the train as part of the crew.
Signal operators install and maintain the signals along tracks and in the rail yard. Signals are important in preventing accidents because they allow increased communication between trains and dispatchers.
Switch operators control the track switches in rail yards. These switches allow trains to move between tracks and ensure trains are heading in the right direction.
Locomotive firers are sometimes part of a train crew and typically monitor tracks and train instruments. They look for equipment that is dragging, obstacles on the tracks, and other potential safety problems.
Few trains still use firers, because their work has been automated or is now done by a locomotive engineer or conductor.