There are no formal education requirements beyond a high school diploma.
Some hazmat removal workers must be licensed. Positions in nuclear facilities require candidates to be U.S. citizens, pass a security background investigation, and pass drug and alcohol abuse screening.
Hazmat removal workers typically need a high school diploma. Although not required, associate's degree programs related to radiation protection may help candidates seeking positions in nuclear facilities.
Hazmat removal workers receive training on the job. Training generally includes a combination of classroom instruction and fieldwork. In the classroom, they learn safety procedures and the proper use of personal protective equipment. Onsite, they learn about equipment and chemicals, and are supervised by an experienced worker.
As part of this training, workers must complete up to 40 hours of training in accordance with OSHA standards. The length of training depends on the type of hazardous material that workers handle. The training covers health hazards, personal protective equipment and clothing, site safety, recognizing and identifying hazards, and decontamination.
To work with a specific hazardous material, workers must complete training requirements and work requirements set by state or federal agencies on handling that material.
Workers who treat asbestos or lead, the most common contaminants, must complete an employer-sponsored training program that covers technical and safety subjects outlined by OSHA.
Decommissioning and decontamination workers at nuclear facilities receive extensive training. In addition to completing the OSHA-required hazardous waste removal training, workers must take courses on nuclear materials and radiation safety as mandated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These courses may take up to 3 months to complete, although most are not taken consecutively.
In addition to completing the training required by OSHA, some states mandate permits or licenses, particularly for asbestos and lead removal. Workers who transport hazardous materials may need a state or federal permit.
License requirements vary by state, but candidates typically must meet the following criteria:
Be at least 18 years old
Complete training mandated by a state or federal agency
Pass a written exam
To maintain licensure, workers must take continuing education courses each year. For more information, check with the state's licensing agency.
Work Experience in a Related Occupation
Although previous work experience is not required, some employers prefer candidates with experience in the construction trades, such as construction laborers and helpers.
In addition, some employers at nuclear facilities prefer to hire workers with at least 2 years of related work experience. Experience in nuclear operations in the U.S. Navy as a nuclear technician or power plant operator or experience working as a janitor at a nuclear facility may be helpful.
Decisionmaking skills. Hazmat removal workers identify materials in a spill or leak and choose the proper method for cleaning up.
Detail oriented. Hazmat removal workers must follow safety procedures and keep records of their work. For example, workers must track the amount and type of waste disposed, equipment or chemicals used, and number of containers stored.
Math skills. Workers must be able to perform basic mathematical conversions and calculations when mixing solutions that neutralize contaminants.
Mechanical skills. Hazmat removal workers may operate heavy equipment to clean contaminated sites.
Physical stamina. Workers may have to stand and scrub equipment or surfaces for hours at a time to remove toxic materials.